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Bio 171 Fall 2010 Practice exam 1 Answers

Bio 171 Fall 2010 Practice exam 1 Answers - Bio 171 Fall...

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Unformatted text preview: Bio 171 Fall 2010 Practice exam 1 Answers Multiple choice: 1. c 2. b 3. d 4. e 5. d 6. a – not covered in detail this term 7. e 8. a 9. e 10. b 11. a 12. d 13. a 14. d 15. a 16. b 17. c 18. e – not covered in detail this term 19. c 20. e 21. a 22. d 23. a 24. e 25. d 26. c – discussion article not used this year 27. c – not yet covered this year 28. b – not yet covered this year 29. b – not yet covered this year 30. a – not yet covered this year Short answer: 31a. Countercurrent flow 31b. A = area for gas exchange; maximized by very large number of gill lamellae. D = thickness of barrier to diffusion; gill lamellae are very thin. P2 ­P1 = Partial pressure difference on either side of barrier; maximized by countercurrent flow. 31c. The figure would be changed to show CO2 poor water flowing in across the gill lamellae and CO2 rich water flowing out, and CO2 rich blood coming in from the heart, and CO2 poor blood flowing back to the body. 32a. Hadley cells 32b. Hadley cells are result from convection currents caused by solar radiation heating the earth’s surface at the equator. The warm air rises and cools and is replaced below by air flowing from north and south. The cool air flows to the north and south and sinks because it is denser, closing the loop. 32c. The warm air rising above the equator loses moisture as it cools because cool air can hold less moisture than warm air. This causes large amounts of rainfall in equatorial regions. The cool air sinking at 30° north and south is very dry, having given up its moisture near the equator, so there is little rainfall in those regions. 32d. Tropical wet forest. 32e. Subtropical desert. 33a. A = producer B = primary consumer C = secondary consumer D = tertiary consumer 33b. 20% 33c. Some energy is used by organisms at each level for their own metabolic processes (cellular respiration), growth and reproduction. Also, with each transfer of energy, some is lost as heat. 34a. A = biomass & detritus B = dissolved CO2 in the ocean C = fossil organic carbon (coal, oil, gas) D = the atmosphere 34b. x = photosynthesis y = burning fossil fuels 34c. CO2 acts as a greenhouse gas by absorbing solar energy reflected from the earth’s surface and reradiating it at longer wavelengths back to earth, thus trapping more solar energy at the earth’s surface. The effect of burning fossil fuels is to increase the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, which causes global temperatures to rise. 35a. Adult Chthamalus are competitively excluded from the lower intertidal zone. 35b. Chthamalus on the side of the rock without Semibalanus survived while those on the side with Semibalanus were mostly killed. 35c. In natural settings, Chthamalus are not found in the lower intertidal because they are excluded from this range by the competitor, Semibalanus. Semibalanus are not found in the highest intertidal because they are not tolerant of desiccation and die of dehydration. 35d. The realized niche of Chthamalus is smaller than its fundamental niche, because in the absence of the competitor, it could survive in the lower intertidal. The realized niche of Semibalanus is the same as its fundamental niche because it is capable of survival throughout its entire fundamental niche. ...
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