Postcranial bones In 2007, the discovery of many postcranial (below the skull) bones was announced (Lordkipanidze et al 2007, Gibbons 2007, Lieberman 2007). The bones included a right femur, tibia and kneecap (the most complete known lower limb of early Homo ); an ankle bone, part of a shoulder blade, three collar bones, three upper arm bones, five vertebrae, and a few other small bones. Some of these bones were associated with some of the previously discovered skulls. Study of the leg bones shows that the Dmanisi hominids walked bipedally and upright, though there are some minor differences from modern humans. The length and morphology of the hindlimb is essentially modern, and the presence of an adducted hallux and plantar arch indicate that the salient aspects of performance in the leg and foot, such as biomechanical efficiency during long-range walking and energy storage/return during running, were equivalent to modern humans. However, plesiomorphic features such as a more medial orientation of the foot, absence of humeral torsion, small body size and low
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