Although this stylized example represents the case where individual fitness and population survival

Although this stylized example represents the case where individual fitness and population survival

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Although this stylized example represents the case where individual fitness and population survival are at odds, it is important to note that traits favored by individual- level selection may often have the incidental effect ("byproduct") of favoring population or species survival (e.g., if giving birth to fewer offspring than physiological maximum allows one to raise more surviving offspring total, as noted above -- something to be explored in detail in a later lecture) For example, many plant species have evolved chemicals that are toxic to their predators, and this keeps them from being eaten up; this has the incidental effect of reducing the chance that the species will become extinct from over-predation, but that is not why this feature evolved -- rather, it evolved because mutants who had this toxicity trait survived better and passed on this trait to more offspring than those who lacked the trait (If you don't find that example convincing, note that many plants also produce chemicals
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course ANT ANT2000 taught by Professor Monicaoyola during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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