Archaeological Data Archaeological record indicates that plant & animal domestication arose independently in at least 7, and possibly more, separate locales (see also Table 5.1 in Diamond book): Centers of domestication Dates (years b.p.) Near East/"fertile crescent" 11,000 Northern China 9,000 Southern China (?) 8,000 Central Mexico 5,750 Peruvian Andes 5,250 Papua New Guinea 6-9,000 West Africa 4,500 Eastern No. America 4,000 Two basic types of agriculture revealed in archaeological record: 1) seed-crop = cereal grains (wheat, maize, rice); occur in simple ecological communities (low species diversity); very productive, but unstable -- cultivation requires constant human intervention (e.g., burning, tilling, weeding) 2) vegeculture = root crops and tree crops (manioc, yams, taro, avocado, potato); complex plant communities (multi-species); less productive but more stable than seed crop, less labor inputs needed Because seed-crop domestication took place primarily in arid regions with good
This is the end of the preview. Sign up
access the rest of the document.