Review of Thermodynamic Concepts

Review of Thermodynamic Concepts - System Boundary 3) T...

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Review of Thermodynamic Concepts The following is a brief discussion of some of the concepts introduced in Unified Engineering, which we will need in 16.050. Several of these will be further amplified in the lectures and in other handouts. If you need additional information or examples concerning these topics, they are described clearly and in-depth in the Unified Notes of Professor Waitz, where detailed references to the relevant sections of the text (SB&VW) are given. They are also covered, although in a less detailed manner, in Chapters 1 and 2 of the book by Van Ness. 1) T hermodynamic s can be regarded as a generalization of an enormous body of empirical evidence. It is extremely general, and there are no hypotheses made concerning the structure and type of matter that we deal with. 2) T hermodynamic syste m : A quantity of matter of fixed identity. Work or heat (see below) can be transferred across the system boundary, but mass cannot. ? ? Gas, Fluid
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Unformatted text preview: System Boundary 3) T hermodynamic properties : For engineering purposes, we want "averaged" information, i.e., macroscopic not microscopic (molecular) description. (Knowing the position and velocity of each of 1020+ molecules that we meet in typical engineering applications is generally not useful.) 4) S t ate of a syste m : The thermodynamic state is defined by specifying values of a (small) set of measured properties which are sufficient to determine all the remaining properties. 0-3 5) E quilibrium : The state of a system in which properties have definite (unchanged) values as long as external conditions are unchanged is called an equilibrium state. Properties ( P , pressure, T , temperature, , density) describe states only when the system is in equilibrium. ? ? Mg + PoA = PA Gas at Pressure, P Mass Mechanical Equilibrium Po Insulation Copper Partition Thermal Equilibrium Gas T1 Over time, T1 T2 Gas T2...
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