Optics of the eye

Optics of the eye - by the lens, and then a bit more by the...

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Optics of the eye The human eye is a wonderful instrument, relying on refraction and lenses to form images. There are many similarities between the human eye and a camera, including: a diaphragm to control the amount of light that gets through to the lens. This is the shutter in a camera, and the pupil, at the center of the iris, in the human eye. a lens to focus the light and create an image. The image is real and inverted. a method of sensing the image. In a camera, film is used to record the image; in the eye, the image is focused on the retina, and a system of rods and cones is the front end of an image-processing system that converts the image to electrical impulses and sends the information along the optic nerve to the brain. The way the eye focuses light is interesting, because most of the refraction that takes place is not done by the lens itself, but by the aqueous humor, a liquid on top of the lens. Light is refracted when it comes into the eye by this liquid, refracted a little more
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Unformatted text preview: by the lens, and then a bit more by the vitreous humor, the jelly-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina. The lens is critical in forming a sharp image, however; this is one of the most amazing features of the human eye, that it can adjust so quickly when focusing objects at different distances. This process of adjustment is known as accommodation. Consider the lens equation: With a camera, the lens has a fixed focal length. If the object distance is changed, the image distance (the distance between the lens and the film) is adjusted by moving the lens. This can't be done with the human eye: the image distance, the distance between the lens and the retina, is fixed. If the object distance is changed (i.e., the eye is trying to focus objects that are at different distances), then the focal length of the eye is adjusted to create a sharp image. This is done by changing the shape of the lens; a muscle known as the ciliary muscle does this job....
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