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Transformers - Transformers Electricity is often generated...

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Transformers Electricity is often generated a long way from where it is used, and is transmitted long distances through power lines. Although the resistance of a short length of power line is relatively low, over a long distance the resistance can become substantial. A power line of resistance R causes a power loss of I 2 R ; this is wasted as heat. By reducing the current, therefore, the I 2 R losses can be minimized. At the generating station, the power generated is given by P = VI. To reduce the current while keeping the power constant, the voltage can be increased. Using AC power, and Faraday's law of induction, there is a very simple way to increase voltage and decrease current (or vice versa), and that is to use a transformer. A transformer is made up of two coils, each with a different number of loops, linked by an iron core so the magnetic flux from one passes through the other. When the flux generated by one coil changes (as it does continually if the coil is connected to an AC power source), the flux passing through the other will change, inducing a voltage in the second coil.
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