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Anomalies - polycystic kidneys in adulthood o Accessory...

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Anomalies Common anomalies Types of anomalies include the following: o Non-development (agenesis): Non-definable organ is identified o Mal-development: Organ does not develop properly o Ectopic: Development is in wrong place Kidney anomalies o Pelvic kidney: Kidney does not move headwards to adult position (failure of ascent) o Horseshoe kidney: Kidneys fuse together in lower pole o Thoracic kidney: Associated with posterolateral defect in diaphragm o Crossed ectopia: Both kidneys on one side o Renal agenesis: Only single kidney develops; Due to absence of ureteric bud o Supernumerary kidney: Extra kidney on either side; Result of 2 ureteric buds Ureter anomalies o Duplex/Bifid: Incomplete division causes 2 ureteric buds to reach kidney; Problematic if one end is ectopic (below sphincter/into vagina) ---- urinary incontinence o Polycystic disease: Mal-union of ureter with renal parenchyma ---- develop
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Unformatted text preview: polycystic kidneys in adulthood o Accessory renal arteries: May cross in front of ureter causing obstruction of urine outflow Testes anomalies o Failure to descend o Absent mesonephric duct: Leads to normal sized testis, but with azoospermia Bladder anomalies o Persistent allantois with urachal fistula Urachal cyst: Failure of obliteration of small part of allantois ---- cyst with collection of fluids Urachal sinus: Distal part of allantois unobliterated ---- sinus opening on umbilicus Urachal fistula: Failure of obliteration of entire allantois ---- bladder communicates with exterior by urine dribbling fistula o Ectopia vesicae: Trigone empties to anterior wall of bladder without covering of endoderm...
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