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Bone Structure - layered membrane Connective tissue...

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Bone Structure - Gross Anatomy: With few exceptions, all long bones have the same general structure. Diaphysis: "shaft" which constitutes the long axis of the bone. Constructed of a thick collar of compact bone that surrounds a cavity. The medulla cavity in adults contains fat (yellow marrow). Epiphyses: "ends" or extremities. They are usually more expanded than the diaphyses. A thin layer of compact bone forms the exterior and the interior contains spongy bone. Epiphyseal plate: In young bones, cartilage is present at the junction of the diaphysis and epiphysis. This is the growth area that allows bones to lengthen. Epiphyseal line: remnant of the epiphyseal plate. After puberty the cartilage of the epiphyseal plate is converted to bone and no further growth is possible. Periosteum: the outer surface of the diaphysis which is covered and protected by a double
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Unformatted text preview: layered membrane. Connective tissue consisting primarily of bone-forming cells (osteoblasts). Provides an insertion or anchoring point for tendons and ligaments. Endosteum: internal bone surfaces are covered with a delicate connective tissue membrane. Covers the trabeculae of spongy bone in the narrow cavities and lines the canals that pass through the compact bone. Articular Cartilage: where long bones articulate at epiphyseal surfaces, the bony surfaces are covered with articular (hyaline) cartilage which cushions the bone ends and absorbs stress during joint movement. The other bones share a simple design. They consist of thin plates of periosteum-covered compact bone on the outside and endosteum covered spongy bone within. They have no shaft or epiphyses....
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