Ch 1-1 - CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY&...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I. INTRODUCTION A. DEFINITIONS : 1. ANATOMY = the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts. 2. PHYSIOLOGY = the study of the function of body parts. 3. Be able to explain the relationship between these two. B. Know which body systems contribute to the ten processes of life. Ten processes:See Table 1.3, page 8. The number after each process indicates how many systems you should be able to justify that help with that particular process. a. Movement – 2 b. Responsiveness - 3 c. Growth - 2 d. Reproduction -2 e. Respiration - 2 f. Digestion - 3 g. Absorption - all h. Circulation - 2 i. Assimilation - 2 j. Excretion - 1 C. Know the Environmental Needs : See Table 1.4, page 9. a. nutrients for energy b. oxygen for cellular respiration c. water for most metabolic reactions, lubrication, etc. d. heat to maintain 37 o C body temp, enzyme action e. pressure for breathing and filtering blood through kidneys. 7 D. HOMEOSTASIS See Fig 1.5 and Fig 1.6, page 10. 1. Definition = the tendency of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment . Homeostasis is monitored by receptors which send signals to a control center which determines if it falls within the body’s set points. Know terms : Receptor, control center and effectors 2. All life processes and metabolic reactions work to maintain homeostasis. 3. Most homeostatic mechanisms are regulated by negative feedback Example = Blood Glucose levels 4. There are some positive feedback mechanisms as well. Example = Blood Clotting II. STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION : List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level. See Fig 1.6, page 9 and Table 1.3, page 12. A. The atom (i.e. C, H, O) is the least complex level; the smallest particle of an element. B. molecules (i.e. CO 2 , H 2 0); C. macromolecules (i.e. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids); D. organelles (i.e. cell membrane, nucleus, ribosomes); small organs of a cell each with a particular function; E. cells (i.e. skin cell, muscle cell, neuron); The cell is the basic unit of structure and function of living things! F. tissues (i.e. epithelia, connective, muscle, nervous); Be able to define tissue. G. organs (i.e. skin, heart, brain); Be able to define organ. H. organ systems (i.e. integumentary, cardiovascular); 8 Know the eleven organ systems. I. The human organism; the most complex level of organization. III. Organ Systems List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system. (See page 14 of notes) IV. Organization of the Human Body A. Body Divisions The body can be divided into the axial and appendicular portions: AXIAL PORTION = head, neck and trunk APPENDICULAR PORTION = arms and legs B. Body Cavities Designate the two major human body cavities, and their subdivisions, and name the organs within each on a human diagram.the organs within each on a human diagram....
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Ch 1-1 - CHAPTER 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY&...

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