Ligaments - Ligaments, discs and columns Ligaments of the...

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Ligaments, discs and columns Ligaments of the Vertebral Column The vertebrae are held together by a number of ligaments: Individual vertebrae are held together by: o Facet Capsulary ligaments – placed between adjacent facets o Intertransverse ligaments - placed between adjacent transverse processes o Interspinal ligaments – placed between adjacent spinous processes o Ligamentum flava – placed between adjacent lamina – high elastin content Long ligaments which hold multiple vertebrae together: o Anterior longitudinal ligaments o Posterior longitudinal ligaments o Supraspinous ligament – connects together the apices of the spinous processed from the 7 th cervical vertebra to the sacrum Intervertebral Disc Structure Intervertebral discs (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lie between adjacent vertebrae in the spine. Each disc forms a cartilaginous joint to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together. Discs consist of an outer annulus fibrosus, which surrounds the inner nucleus pulposus. The annulus fibrosus consists of several layers of fibrocartilage. The strong annular fibers contain the nucleus pulposus and distribute pressure evenly across the disc. The nucleus pulposus contains loose fibers suspended in a mucoprotein gel the consistency of jelly. The nucleus of the disc acts as a shock absorber, absorbing the impact of the body's daily activities and keeping the two vertebrae separated.
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The Cervical Vertebrae General Characteristics of Cervical Vertebrae (C3-C6) The body of these four vertebrae is small and broader from side to side than from front to back The anterior and posterior surfaces are flattened and of equal depth; the former is placed on a lower level than the latter, and its inferior border is prolonged downward, so as to overlap the upper and forepart of the vertebra below The upper surface is concave transversely, and presents a projecting lip on either side o the lower surface is concave from front to back, convex from side to side, and presents laterally shallow concavities which receive the corresponding projecting lips of the underlying vertebra The pedicles are directed laterally and backward, and are attached to the body midway between its upper and lower borders, so that the superior vertebral notch is as deep as the inferior, but it is, at the same time, narrower
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Ligaments - Ligaments, discs and columns Ligaments of the...

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