Synovial Joints: Articulating bones are separated by a fluid-filled joint cavity. Permits freedom of movement - diarthrotic joints. Examples: all joints of the limbs, most joints of the body. Five distinguishing features: 1. Articular cartilage - covers opposing bone surfaces. 2. Joint cavity. 3. Articular capsule - cavity enclosed by a double-layered articular capsule. Synovial membrane lines the capsule internally and covers all internal joint surfaces that are not hyaline cartilage. 4. Synovial fluid: provides a slippery weight-bearing film that reduces friction. Also provides nourishment to the cartilage. 5. Reinforcing ligaments: joints reinforced and strengthened by a number of ligaments. Certain synovial joints such as the hip and knee have cushioning fatty pads between the fibrous capsule and the synovial membrane or bone. Others have discs or wedges of fibrocartilage separating the articular surfaces of the bones. The articular discs improve the fit between the articulating bone ends, making the joint more stable. Found in the knee, jaw, and sternoclavicular
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