HIST FINAL STUDY GUIDE - C U M U L AT I V E E S S AY 1 5 0 P O I N T S WE HAVE SPENT MUCH OF THE PAST SEMESTER TALKING ABOUT SEVERAL KEY EVENTS

HIST FINAL STUDY GUIDE - C U M U L AT I V E E S S AY...

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CUMULATIVE ESSAY (150 POINTS) WE HAVE SPENT MUCH OF THE PAST SEMESTER TALKING ABOUT SEVERAL KEY EVENTS, NOTABLY THE REFORMATION, THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AND THE GREAT WAR. CHOOSE 2 OF THEM, DESCRIBE THEIR IMPORTANCE AND IMPACT AND DISCUSS HOW ONE LED TO THE OTHER. BE SURE TO INCLUDE AS MANY RELEVANT EXAMPLES (PEOPLE, PLACES, EVENTS, DATES) AS NECESSARY. The Industrial Revolution of the 19 th century occurred in two stages and laid the footwork for the modern world we know today. This revolution marked change from an agriculture based economy to one dominated by industry and new machines. The 18 th century was the start of the first Industrial Revolution, this is when Britain discovered new sources of power, the steam engine reengineered by James Watts, and new forms of labor organization spread across the world with the introduction of labor division and centralization to lower costs and drive production speed. The use of cotton dominated the textile industry as it was lighter, cheaper, and more colorful after dying than what was previously used – wool, linen, and silk. The invention of spinning jenny in 1764 made the spinning of thread much faster as it allowed workers to spin 8 spindle simultaneously using water power. After the spinning jenny was converted to be used with steam power, it could produce thread up to 300 times faster than doing it by hand. This changed European society and marketing in a large way, the middle class grew used to the idea of changing clothes with the seasons and buying ready-made clothing. The end of the first industrial revolution is marked by the invention of the hydraulic press in 1795 which could be used for stamping iron. With the invention of steamships and railroads, transportation was completely conformed by the 1830’s and pushed many other inventions, including improvements in the making of iron. It was not much longer after the invention of railroads that the government decided to harness the use of these inventions. Factories ability to mass produce allowed guns and bullets to produce quickly and standardized. Bullets were more likely to strike their targets with new technology. The military began mass producing boots, jackets, and pants increasing their ability to clothe new soldiers. As the Second Industrial Revolution kicks off in 1870, advances in chemistry lead to new explosives and even gasses that could be used as a weapon.

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