Bonding in Solids - Bonding in Solids Molecular Solids...

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Molecular Solids Consist of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular forces (dipole- dipole, dispersion and hydrogen bonds) o These forces are weaker than chemical (covalent) bonds. Therefore molecular solids are soft, and have a generally low melting temperature o Most substances that are gasses or liquids at room temperature form molecular solids at low temperature (e.g. H 2 O, CO 2 ) Comparison of bond energies for different types of bonds Type of bond Energy (kJ/mol) Dispersion (Carbon - carbon van der Waals) ~1.0 Hydrogen bond (strongest dipole-dipole) ~12-16 Ionic ~50-100 Covalent ~100-1000 The properties of molecular solids also depends upon the shape of the molecule Benzene (six carbon ring with a symmetrical structure) packs efficiently in three dimensions Toluene is related to benzene but has a methyl group attached to one carbon of the ring. It is not symmetrical and does not pack efficiently. Its melting point is lower than benzene
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM1025 taught by Professor Laurachoudry during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Bonding in Solids - Bonding in Solids Molecular Solids...

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