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Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates have the general...

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Carbohydrates have the general formula [CH 2 O] n where n is a number between 3 and 6. Note the different CH 2 O units in Figure 8. Carbohydrates function in short-term energy storage (such as sugar); as intermediate-term energy storage (starch for plants and glycogen for animals); and as structural components in cells ( cellulose in the cell walls of plants and many protists), and chitin in the exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods. Sugars are structurally the simplest carbohydrates. They are the structural unit which makes up the other types of carbohydrates. Monosaccharides are single (mono=one) sugars. Important monosaccharides include ribose (C 5 H 10 O 5 ), glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), and fructose (same formula but different structure than glucose). Figure 8. The chain (left) and ring (center and right) method of representing carbohydrates. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology , 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates and WH Freeman), used with permission.
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