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Changes of State - heat of fusion ∆ H fus • Ice ∆ H...

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Changes of State The three states of matter include solid liquid gas In general, matter in one state can be changed into either of the other two states. Such transformations are called "phase changes" Energy Changes Accompanying Changes of State Each change of state is accompanied by a change in the energy of the system Whenever the change involves the disruption of intermolecular forces, energy must be supplied The disruption of intermolecular forces accompanies the state going towards a less ordered state
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As the strengths of the intermolecular forces increase, greater amounts of energy are required to overcome them during a change in state The melting process for a solid is also referred to as fusion The enthalpy change associated with melting a solid is often called the
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Unformatted text preview: heat of fusion ( ∆ H fus ) • Ice ∆ H fus = 6.01 kJ/mol The heat needed for the vaporization of a liquid is called the heat of vaporization ( ∆ H vap ) • Water ∆ H vap = 40.67 kJ/mol Less energy is needed to allow molecules to move past each other than to separate them totally Vaporization requires the input of heat energy. • Our bodies use this as a mechanism to remove excess heat from ourselves. We sweat, and its evaporation requires heat input (the excess heat from ourselves). • Refrigerators use the evaporation of Freon (CCl 2 F 2 ) to remove heat inside the fridge. The Freon is condensed outside the cabinet (usually in coils at the back) in a process which releases heat energy (the coils will be warm)...
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Changes of State - heat of fusion ∆ H fus • Ice ∆ H...

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