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Characteristics of Gases

Characteristics of Gases - under standard conditions can...

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Characteristics of Gases The air we breathe: 78% N 2 (fairly inert) 21% O 2 (reactive) Some common gases: Formula Name Characteristics H 2 Hydrogen Flammable, lighter than air He Helium Colorless, nonflammable, lighter than air HCN Hydrogen cyanide Toxic, has been used historically to shorten people's lives HCl Hydrogen chloride Toxic, corrosive H 2 S Hydrogen sulfide Toxic, smells like rotten eggs CO Carbon monoxide Toxic, Jack Kervorkian's favorite gas CO 2 Carbon dioxide Colorless, odorless, not toxic, but unsupportive of respiration CH 4 Methane Colorless, odorless, flammable, occasional byproduct of the digestive system N 2 O Nitrous oxide Colorless, sweet odor, makes you feel "funny" NO 2 Nitrogen dioxide Toxic, red-brown, irritating odor NH 3 Ammonia Colorless, pungent odor SO 2 Sulfur dioxide Colorless, irritating odor All of the above gasses Are composed of non-metals Have simple formulas, and therefore low molecular masses Substances that are liquids or solids
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Unformatted text preview: under standard conditions can usually also exist in the gaseous state, where they are commonly referred to as vapors Some general characteristics of gasses which distinguish them from liquids or solids : • gasses expand spontaneously to fill their container (the volume of a gas equals the volume of its container) • gasses can be readily compressed (and its volume will decrease) • gasses form homogenous mixtures with each other regardless of the identities or relative properties of the component gases (e.g. water and gasoline vapors will form a homogenous mixture, whereas the liquids will not) • The individual molecules are relatively far apart 1. In air, the molecules take up about 0.1% of the total volume (the rest is empty space) 2. Each molecule, therefore, behaves as though it were isolated (as a result, each gas has similar characteristics)...
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