Chemical Bonding - Chemical Bonding During the nineteenth...

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Chemical Bonding During the nineteenth century, chemists arranged the then-known elements according to chemical bonding, recognizing that one group (the furthermost right column on the Periodic Table, referred to as the Inert Gases or Noble Gases) tended to occur in elemental form (in other words, not in a molecule with other elements). It was later determined that this group had outer electron shells containing two (as in the case of Helium) or eight (Neon, Xenon, Radon, Krypton, etc.) electrons. As a general rule, for the atoms we are likely to encounter in biological systems, atoms tend to gain or lose their outer electrons to achieve a Noble Gas outer electron shell configuration of two or eight electrons. The number of electrons that are gained or lost is characteristic for each element, and ultimately determines the number and types of chemical bonds atoms of that element can form. Atomic diagrams for several atoms are shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. Atomic diagrams illustrating the filling of the outer electron shells. Images from Purves et al.,Life: The Science of Biology , 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates ( www.sinauer.com ) and WH Freeman ( www.whfreeman.com ), used with permission.
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Ionic bonds are formed when atoms become ions by gaining or losing electrons. Chlorine is in a group of elements having seven electrons in their outer shells (see Figure 6). Members of this group tend to gain one electron, acquiring a charge of -1. Sodium is in another group with elements having one electron in their outer shells.
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Chemical Bonding - Chemical Bonding During the nineteenth...

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