Chromosomes - Chromosomes Chromosomes serve to manoeuvre...

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Chromosomes Chromosomes serve to manoeuvre DNA through the difficulties of cell division where something like two metres of DNA has to be moved through a distance of only about 100 µm and be separated from a similar amount of DNA moving the other way. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Twenty two pairs, the autosomes , are the same in either sex and are numbered from 1 - 22 in order of diminishing size. One pair, the sex chromosomes are either a pair of X chromosomes (in females) or an X and the very much smaller Y chromosome (in males). One complete set of chromosomes i.e. autosomes 1-22 and a sex chromosome is known as a haploid set. Cells which contain two complete sets (i.e. most cells except for mature germ cells) are diploid . Each chromosome contains its own unique sequence of DNA. Consequently, when the chromosomal DNA and its associated histone and non- histone protein is at its most densely packed (i.e. at mitotic metaphase) it adopts a shape which is slightly different from any other chromosome.
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM1025 taught by Professor Laurachoudry during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Chromosomes - Chromosomes Chromosomes serve to manoeuvre...

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