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Unformatted text preview: The rate of horizontal gene transfer (genes that have jumped the species barrier) among bacteria can now be investigated. How often, and under what circumstances do bacteria exchange genes? Has anything similar happened with higher organisms? Where and how have new genes emerged in evolutionary history? Can precursors of some gene families be found in distant relatives of a species? The problem of identifying and characterizing orthologous genes versus paralogous genes becomes easier to address (but not necessarily solve). o Orthologues are genes that have diverged from a common ancestor because of a speciation event. o Paralogues are genes that have diverged as the result of a gene duplication event. Warning : The term orthologous and paralogous are sometimes used to denote functional equivalence, and similarity without functional equivalence, respectively, but this is frowned upon by evolutionary biologists....
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- Fall '10