Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap

Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap - common space between...

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Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap The VSEPR model is a simple method which allows us to predict molecular geometries, but it does not explain why bonds exist between atoms. How can we explain molecular geometries and the basis of bonding at the same time? Quantum mechanics and molecular orbitals "Valence bond theory" Combine Lewis' idea of electron pair bonds with electron orbitals (quantum mechanics) Covalent bonding occurs when atoms share electrons ( Lewis model ) Concentrates electron density between nuclei The buildup of electron density between two nuclei occurs when a valence atomic orbital of one atom merges with that of another atom (Valence bond theory ) The orbitals share a region of space, i.e. they overlap The overlap of orbitals allows two electrons of opposite spin to share the
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Unformatted text preview: common space between the nuclei, forming a covalent bond There is an optimum distance between two bonded nuclei in covalent bonds: As the 1s orbitals of the hydrogen start to overlap there is a reduction in the potential energy of the system (due to the increase in electron density between the two positively charged nuclei) As the distance decreases further, repulsion between the nuclei becomes significant at short distances The internuclear distance at the minimum potential energy corresponds to the observed bond length Therefore: The observed bond length is the distance at which the attractive forces (nuclei for bonding electrons) is balance by the repulsive force (nuclei vs. nuclei; and additionally, electron vs. electron)...
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Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap - common space between...

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