Covalent Bonding - configuration of the noble gas argon. In...

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Covalent Bonding Ionic substances: usually brittle high melting point organized into an ordered lattice of atoms, which can be cleaved along a smooth line the electrostatic forces organize the ions of ionic substances into a rigid, organized three-dimensional arrangement The vast majority of chemical substances are not ionic in nature gases and liquids, in addition to solids low melting temperatures G.N. Lewis reasoned that an atom might attain a noble gas electron configuration by sharing electrons A chemical bond formed by sharing a pair of electrons is called a covalent bond The diatomic hydrogen molecule (H 2 ) is the simplest model of a covalent bond, and is represented in Lewis structures as: The shared pair of electrons provides each hydrogen atom with two electrons in its valence shell (the 1 s ) orbital. In a sense, it has the electron configuration of the noble gas helium When two chlorine atoms covalently bond to form Cl 2 , the following sharing of electrons occurs: Each chlorine atom shared the bonding pair of electrons and achieves the electron
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Unformatted text preview: configuration of the noble gas argon. In Lewis structures the bonding pair of electrons is usually displayed as a line, and the unshared electrons as dots: The shared electrons are not located in a fixed position between the nuclei. In the case of the H 2 compound, the electron density is concentrated between the two nuclei: The two atoms are bound into the H 2 molecule mainly due to the attraction of the positively charged nuclei for the negatively charged electron cloud located between them For the nonmetals (and the 's' block metals) the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number: Element Group Valence electrons Bonds needed to form valence octe F 7A 7 1 O 6A 6 2 N 5A 5 3 C 4A 4 4 Examples of hydride compounds of the above elements (covalent bonds with hydrogen: Thus, the Lewis bonds successfully describe the covalent interactions between various nonmetal elements...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM1025 taught by Professor Laurachoudry during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Covalent Bonding - configuration of the noble gas argon. In...

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