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Deviations from Ideal Behavior - • At high pressures and...

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Deviations from Ideal Behavior All real gasses fail to obey the ideal gas law to varying degrees The ideal gas law can be written as: For a sample of 1.0 mol of gas, n = 1.0 and therefore: Plotting PV/RT for various gasses as a function of pressure, P: The deviation from ideal behavior is large at high pressure The deviation varies from gas to gas At lower pressures (<10 atm) the deviation from ideal behavior is typically small, and the ideal gas law can be used to predict behavior with little error Deviation from ideal behavior is also a function of temperature:
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As temperature increases the deviation from ideal behavior decreases As temperature decreases the deviation increases, with a maximum deviation near the temperature at which the gas becomes a liquid Two of the characteristics of ideal gases included: The gas molecules themselves occupy no appreciable volume The gas molecules have no attraction or repulsion for each other Real molecules, however, do have a finite volume and do attract one another
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Unformatted text preview: • At high pressures, and low volumes, the intermolecular distances can become quite short, and attractive forces between molecules becomes significant o Neighboring molecules exert an attractive force, which will minimize the interaction of molecules with the container walls. And the apparent pressure will be less than ideal (PV/RT will thus be less than ideal). • As pressures increase, and volume decreases, the volume of the gas molecules becomes significant in relationship to the container volume o In an extreme example, the volume can decrease below the molecular volume, thus PV/RT will be higher than ideal (V is higher) • At high temperatures, the kinetic energy of the molecules can overcome the attractive influence and the gasses behave more ideal o At higher pressures, and lower volumes, the volume of the molecules influences PV/RT and its value, again, is higher than ideal •...
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