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Unformatted text preview: s orbital (for Li) is said to be &quot;unpaired&quot; The 4s orbital would be filled when we have an element with 20 electrons (Calcium). Then we go back and fill up the 3d orbitals, which can hold a maximum of 10 electrons Thus, the 4 th row of the periodic table is 10 elements wider than the previous row - we have available five ' d ' orbitals we can fill (with 10 electrons). These 10 elements are the Transition Elements, or Transition Metals . With Cerium (element 58) the 'f' orbitals enter the picture. These orbitals can hold 14 electrons. The first 'f' orbitals are the 4f orbitals (n=4; l=0(s), 1(p), 2(d), 3(f)) These additional elements are represented by the 14 lanthanide (4f orbital filling) and actinide (5f orbitals) series of elements The energy of the 5d and 4f orbitals are very close...
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