Electron Configurations - s orbital(for Li is said to...

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Electron Configurations The way in which electrons are distributed among the various orbitals is called the electron configuration Orbitals are filled in order of increasing energy, with no more than two electrons per orbital Lithium This element has 3 electrons. We would thus begin by placing two electrons in the 1 s ground state, or lowest energy, orbital. These two electrons would have opposite magnetic spin quantum numbers. We would then place the third electron in the next highest energy level orbital - the 2 s orbital: The arrows indicate the value of the magnetic spin ( m s ) quantum number (up for +1/2 and down for -1/2) The description of the occupation of the orbitals would be described in the following way:
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1 s 2 2 s 1 or, "1 s two, 2 s one". Electrons having opposite spins are said to be "paired" electrons, as with the electrons occupying the Li 1 s orbital Likewise, the single electron in the 2
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Unformatted text preview: s orbital (for Li) is said to be "unpaired" The 4s orbital would be filled when we have an element with 20 electrons (Calcium). Then we go back and fill up the 3d orbitals, which can hold a maximum of 10 electrons Thus, the 4 th row of the periodic table is 10 elements wider than the previous row - we have available five ' d ' orbitals we can fill (with 10 electrons). These 10 elements are the Transition Elements, or Transition Metals . With Cerium (element 58) the 'f' orbitals enter the picture. These orbitals can hold 14 electrons. The first 'f' orbitals are the 4f orbitals (n=4; l=0(s), 1(p), 2(d), 3(f)) These additional elements are represented by the 14 lanthanide (4f orbital filling) and actinide (5f orbitals) series of elements The energy of the 5d and 4f orbitals are very close...
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Electron Configurations - s orbital(for Li is said to...

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