Electronegativity - an electric dipole moment . The...

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Electronegativity Electronegativity and Bond Polarity If the bonding electrons are not shared equally in a covalent bond, then the bond will be  polar. To quantify how polar a bond will be we introduce the concept of  Electronegativity. Electronegativity  - the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. For example, in the HF molecule, the bonding electrons spend more time on the fluorine  than the hydrogen because the fluorine has a higher electronegativity than hydrogen. We  indicate this slight excess of negative charge on the fluorine with the symbol  δ - : As a result of this unequal sharing of bonding electrons the HF molecule will have 
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Unformatted text preview: an electric dipole moment . The electric dipole moment is a vector quantity, and is represented by the symbol . In the case of HF, will lie along the direction of the H-F bond: The strength of the electric dipole moment across a bond will be proportional to the difference in electronegativity of the two atoms forming the bond. There are a number of ways to quantify atom electronegativities. Below are a few numbers based on an approach by Linus Pauling. H: 2.1 Li: 1.0 Be: 1.5 B: 2.0 C: 2.5 N: 3.0 O:3.5 F: 4.0 Na: 0.9 Mg: 1.2 Al: 1.5 S: 1.8 P: 2.1 S: 2.5 Cl: 3.0 The general trend of Electronegativity in the periodic table is...
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Electronegativity - an electric dipole moment . The...

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