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Group 7A - affinities Fluorine will remove electrons from...

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Group 7A: The Halogens 7A 9 F 17 Cl 35 Br 53 I 85 At "Halogen" is derived from the Greek meaning "salt formers" Astatine is radioactive and rare, and some of its properties are unknown All the halogens are nonmetals Each element consists of diatomic molecules under standard conditions Colors of diatomic halogens: ( not flame colors) Fluorine: pale yellow Chlorine: yellow green Bromine: reddish brown Iodine: violet vapor The halogens have some of the most negative electron affinities (i.e. large exothermic process in gaining an electron from another element) The chemistry of the halogens is dominated by their tendency to gain electrons from other elements (forming a halide ion) X 2 + 2e - -> 2X - Fluorine and chlorine are the most reactive halogens (highest electron
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Unformatted text preview: affinities). Fluorine will remove electrons from almost any substance In 1992 22.3 billion pounds of chlorine was produced. Both chlorine and sodium can be produced by electrolysis of molten sodium chloride (table salt). The electricity is used to strip electrons from chloride ions and tranfer them to sodium ions to produce chlorine gas and solid sodium metal Chlorine reacts slowly with water to produce hydrochloric acid and hypochlorous acid: Cl 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l ) -> HCl( aq ) + HOCl( aq ) Hypochlorous acid is a disinfectant, thus chlorine is a useful addition to swimming pool water The halogens react with most metals to form ionic halides: Cl 2 ( g ) + 2Na( s ) -> 2NaCl( s )...
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Group 7A - affinities Fluorine will remove electrons from...

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