Ionic Bonding - to form NaCl) are usually extremely...

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Ionic Bonding Sodium metal reacts with chlorine gas in a violently exothermic reaction to produce NaCl (composed of Na + and Cl - ions): 2Na( s ) + Cl 2 ( g ) -> 2NaCl( s ) These ions are arranged in solid NaCl in a regular three-dimensional arrangement (or lattice): The chlorine has a high affinity for electrons, and the sodium has a low ionization potential. Thus the chlorine gains an electron from the sodium atom. This can be represented using electron-dot symbols (here we will consider one chlorine atom, rather than Cl 2 ): The arrow indicates the transfer of the electron from sodium to chlorine to form the Na + metal ion and the Cl - chloride ion. Each ion now has an octet of electrons in its valence shell: Na + 2s 2 2p 6 Cl - 3s 2 3p 6 Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation The formation of ionic compounds (like the addition of sodium metal and chlorine gas
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Unformatted text preview: to form NaCl) are usually extremely exothermic . The loss of an electron from an element: • Always endothermic (takes energy to strip the e' from the atom) • Na(g) -> Na + (g) + 1e-∆ H = 496 kJ/mol The gain of an electron by a nonmetal: • Generally exothermic (energy released) • Cl(g) + 1e--> Cl-(g) ∆ H = -349 kJ/mol The formation of NaCl from Na and Cl would thus require the input of 147 kJ/mol . However, it appears to be a highly exothermic reaction. Ionic compounds are stable due to the attraction between unlike charges : • The ions are drawn together • Energy is released • Ions form solid lattice...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM1025 taught by Professor Laurachoudry during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Ionic Bonding - to form NaCl) are usually extremely...

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