Ionic compounds - halogens for example • ClO-• ClO...

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Ionic compounds: Anions Monatomic anions are usually formed from non-metallic elements. They are named by dropping the ending of the element name and adding -ide : Cl - chlor ide ion F - flour ide ion S 2- sulf ide ion O 2- ox ide ion Some common polyatomic anions include: OH- hydroxide ion CN- cyanide ion Many polyatomic anions contain oxygen , and are referred to as oxyanions . When an element can form two different oxyanions the name of the one that contains more oxygen ends in -ate , the one with less ends in -ite : NO 2 - nitrite ion NO 3 - nitrate ion SO 3 2- sulfite ion SO 4 2- sulfate ion Note that unlike the -ous and -ic suffix nomenclature to distinguish the different cations of a metal, the -ite and -ate suffix is used to distinguish the relative amounts of the oxygen atoms in a (polyatomic) oxyanion (in the above examples the ionic charge is the same for the -ite and -ate ions of a specific oxyanion). Now to get really perverse. ... Some compounds can have multiple oxyanion forms (the oxyanions involving the
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Unformatted text preview: halogens, for example): • ClO-• ClO 2-• ClO 3-• ClO 4-Note again, that the number of Oxygens relative to the Chlorine is changing, but that the ionic charge is not. How do we name these? The -ite and -ate suffixes are still used, but we have to add an additional modification to allow us to distinguish between the four forms: • ClO- hypo chlor ite ion • ClO 2- chlor ite ion • ClO 3-chlor ate ion • ClO 4-per chlor ate ion It should be pointed out that some of the naming of ions is historical and is not necessarily systematic. It may be frustrating and confusing, but its all part of chemistry's rich history. Many polyatomic anions that have high (negative) charges can add one or more hydrogen cations (H + ) to form anions of lower effective charge. The naming of these anions reflects whether the H + addition involves one or more hydrogen ions: • HSO 4-hydrogen sulfate ion • H 2 PO 4- di hydrogen phosphate ion...
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Ionic compounds - halogens for example • ClO-• ClO...

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