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Kinetic - negligible 4 The average kinetic energy of the...

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Kinetic-Molecular Theory The ideal gas equation PV = nRT describes how gases behave. A gas expands when heated at constant pressure The pressure increases when a gas is compressed at constant temperature But, why do gases behave this way? What happens to gas particles when conditions such as pressure and temperature change? The Kinetic-Molecular Theory ("the theory of moving molecules"; Rudolf Clausius, 1857) 1. Gases consist of large numbers of molecules (or atoms, in the case of the noble gases) that are in continuous , random motion 2. The volume of all the molecules of the gas is negligible compared to the total volume in which the gas is contained 3. Attractive and repulsive forces between gas molecules is
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Unformatted text preview: negligible 4. The average kinetic energy of the molecules does not change with time (as long as the temperature of the gas remains constant). Energy can be transferred between molecules during collisions (but the collisions are perfectly elastic) 5. The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to absolute temperature. At any given temperature, the molecules of all gases have the same average kinetic energy. In other words, if I have two gas samples, both at the same temperature, then the average kinetic energy for the collection of gas molecules in one sample is equal to the average kinetic energy for the collection of gas molecules in the other sample....
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