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Lecture_10_Periodic_Table - UNIT LECTURE 1 NOTES LECTURE 10...

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U N I T 1 L E C T U R E N O T E S LECTURE 10 Periodicity (11.11) GENERAL CHEMISTRY Fall 2009 Updated: 11/22/2011
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11.11 Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table 1c. Students know how to use the periodic table to identify alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals, trends in ionization energy, electronegativity, and the relative sizes of ions and atoms. A few other groups are given family names. These include the alkali metals (Group 1), such as sodium and potassium, which are soft and white and extremely reactive chemically. Alkaline earth metals (Group 2), such as magnesium and calcium, are found in the second column of the periodic table. The transition metals (Groups 3 through 12) are represented by some of the most common metals, such as iron, copper, gold, mercury, silver, and zinc. All these elements have electrons in their outer d orbitals. Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom of an element to attract electrons toward itself in a chemical bond. The values of electronegativity calculated for various elements range from one or less for the alkali metals to three and one-half for oxygen to about four for fluorine. Ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove an electron from an atom. An element often has multiple ionization energies, which correspond to the energy needed to remove first, second, third, and so
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