Lecture_12_Fundamental_particles

Lecture_12_Fundamental_particles - 3.7 Isotopes 1. Defining...

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L E C T U R E N O T E S LECTURE 12 Fundamental Particles (3.6, 3.7) GENERAL CHEMISTRY Fall 2009 Updated: 11/22/2011
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3.6 Introduction to the Modern Concept of Atomic Structure Simplest view of the atom is that there is a nucleus (10 -13 cm) and electrons that move outside the nucleus about 10 -8 cm from it. Particle Symbols Relative charge Mass number Electron e -1 0 Proton P +1 1 Neutron N 0 1 Distinguishing Among Atoms 1. Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes a. Atomic Number (Z) i. The number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element ii. Atoms are identified by their atomic number iii. Because atoms are neutral, # protons = # electrons iv. Periodic Table is in order of increasing atomic number b. Mass Number i. The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope c. Electrons i. The volume of an atom is from the area in which the electrons move ii. The chemical properties of an atom arise from the electrons.
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Unformatted text preview: 3.7 Isotopes 1. Defining Isotopes i. Atoms of the same element that have different masses ii. All elements of the same element have the same # of protons, but may vary in the number of neutrons iii. Although isotopes have different masses, they do not differ significantly in their chemical behavior iv. Hydrogen as an example: Image from http://encarta.msn.com/media_461531710/hydrogen_isotopes.html Updated: 11/22/2011 2. Designating Isotopes a. Hyphen notation i. Mass number is written after the name of the element 1. Hydrogen-2 2. Helium-4 b. Nuclear Symbol i. Composition of the nucleus using the elements symbol ii. For example, H 2 1 Mass number = 2 Atomic number = 1 He 4 2 Mass number = 4 Atomic number = 2 Name Symbol Atomic number Mass number Neutrons sodium 11 23 nitrogen N 15 7 Ba 136 56 lithium boron 5 11 Updated: 11/22/2011...
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM1025 taught by Professor Laurachoudry during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Lecture_12_Fundamental_particles - 3.7 Isotopes 1. Defining...

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