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Unformatted text preview: U N I T 1 L E C T U R E N O T E S LECTURE 14 Electrons (11.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.10) GENERAL CHEMISTRY Fall 2009 Wave Mechanical Model suggests electrons do not move in circular orbits but move in unpredictable orbits. Thus this model shows the general location where atoms have a higher probability of showing up. A probability map (an orbital) for electrons with higher probability in the middle (closer to the nucleus) 11.7 The Hydrogen Orbitals Orbital: the probability map for predicting electron whereabouts Orbitals boundaries are approximate and electrons can be found outside boundaries rarely Different energy levels represent different geometric orientations for orbitals. Principal Energy Levels: discrete energy levels n=1, n=2, n=3, n=4 S-sublevel: Spherical orbitals get bigger as energy increases P-sublevel: Characterized by two "lobes" on either x axis, y axis, and z axis Example: 4p z , 4p y , 4p x "Potential Space": orbitals have potential space for electrons 11.8 The Wave Mechanical Model: Further Development Pauli Exclusion Principal: An atomic orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons, and those two electrons must have opposite spins....
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