Lecture_15_Nuclear_Processes - UNIT LECTURE 1 NOTES LECTURE...

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U N I T 1 L E C T U R E N O T E S LECTURE 15 Nuclear Processes (19.1, 19.2, & 19.3) GENERAL CHEMISTRY Fall 2009 Updated: 11/22/2011
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I. Introduction  A. History  1. Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (1895) Discovered x-rays 2. Antoine Henri Becquerel (1896) Uranium emissions were continuous and required no energy from  an external source. 3. Marie and Pierre Curie (1898) a. Isolated two new elements, radium and polonium b. Marie Curie is the only scientist to win Nobel Prizes from two  different sciences (1903 – physics; 1911 – chemistry) 4. Ernest Rutherford (1911) a. Radioactive elements undergo a process of decay over time b. First to artificially transmute one element into another B. Nuclear reactions 1. Involve great quantities of energy Strong nuclear force  overcomes electrostatic repulsion between protons 2. Differ from chemical reactions a. atomic numbers change b. some matter is changed to energy c. specific isotopes involved C.    Nucleons 1.   Neutrons and protons D.    Nuclides 1.   Atoms identified by the number of protons and neutrons in the 
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