Lecture_17_Forces_of_Nature

Lecture_17_Forces_of_Nature - LECTURE NOTES LECTURE 17...

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L E C T U R E N O T E S LECTURE 17 Forces of Nature GENERAL CHEMISTRY Fall 2009 Updated: 11/22/2011
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Fundamental forces describe the behavior of the simplest particles in the universe. The simplest particles are not the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, and electrons). * The four known fundamental interactions are electromagnetism, strong interaction, weak interaction (also known as "strong" and "weak nuclear force") and gravitation. 1. Electromagnetism : The electromagnetic force acts between all particles that have electric charge. It is attractive for oppositely charged particles, and repulsive for particles of the same charge. Ex. Chemical bonds, interactions of valence electrons 2. Strong force : in the nucleus there are interactions between quarks; carrier is the gluon. 3. Weak force : operates over short distances and regulates nuclear (radioactive) decay. 4. Gravity : Mass will attract other mass with a force that gets weaker as the distance between them gets larger. * In the Standard Model, the quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons are elementary particles. 12.1 Types of Chemical Bonds Chemical bonds are electrostatic interactions (an electromagnetic force) between valence electrons; a bond is a force that holds groups of two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit. The strength
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM1025 taught by Professor Laurachoudry during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Lecture_17_Forces_of_Nature - LECTURE NOTES LECTURE 17...

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