Multiple Bonds - Multiple Bonds The"internuclear axis is...

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Multiple Bonds The "internuclear axis" is the imaginary axis that passes through the two nuclei in a bond: The covalent bonds we have been considering so far exhibit bonding orbitals which are symmetrical about the internuclear axis (either an s orbital - which is symmetric in all directions, or a p orbital that is pointing along the bond towards the other atom, or a hybrid orbital that is pointing along the axis towards the other atom) Bonds in which the electron density is symmetrical about the internuclear axis are termed "sigma" or " σ " bonds In multiple bonds, the bonding orbitals arise from a different type arrangement: Multiple bonds involve the overlap between two p orbitals These p orbitals are oriented perpendicular to the internuclear (bond) axis This type of overlap of two p orbitals is called a "pi" or " π " bond. Note that this is a single bond (which is made up of the overlap of two p orbitals) In π bonds: The overlapping regions of the bonding orbitals lie above and below the internuclear axis (there is no probability of finding the electron in that region) The size of the overlap is smaller than a σ bond, and thus the bond strength is typically less than that of a σ bond
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Generally speaking: A single bond is composed of a σ bond A double bond is composed of one σ bond and one π bond A triple bond is composed of one σ bond and two π bonds C 2 H 4 (ethylene; see structure above) The arrangement of bonds suggests that the geometry of the bonds around each carbon is trigonal planar Trigonal planar suggests sp 2 hybrid orbitals are being used (these would be σ bonds) What about the electron configuration? Carbon: 1
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY CHM1025 taught by Professor Laurachoudry during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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Multiple Bonds - Multiple Bonds The"internuclear axis is...

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