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Nonmetals - Properties intermediate between the metals and...

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Nonmetals Vary greatly in appearance Non-lustrous Poor conductors of heat and electricity The melting points of non-metals are generally lower than metals Seven non-metals exist under standard conditions as diatomic molecules : 1. H 2 ( g ) 2. N 2 ( g ) 3. O 2 ( g ) 4. F 2 ( g ) 5. Cl 2 ( g ) 6. Br 2 ( l ) 7. I 2 ( l ) (volatile liquid - evaporates readily) Nonmetals, when reacting with metals, tend to gain electrons (typically attaining noble gas electron configuration) and become anions: Nonmetal + Metal -> Salt 3Br 2 ( l ) + 2Al( s ) -> 2AlBr 3 ( s ) Compounds composed entirely of nonmetals are molecular substances (not ionic) Most nonmetal oxides are acidic oxides . Those that dissolve in water react to form acids: Nonmetal oxide + water -> acid CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( l ) -> H 2 CO 3 ( aq ) [carbonic acid] (carbonated water is slightly acidic) Nonmetal oxides can combine with bases to form salts Nonmetal oxide + base -> salt CO 2 ( g ) + 2NaOH( aq ) -> Na 2 CO 3 ( aq ) + H 2 O( l ) Metalloids
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Unformatted text preview: Properties intermediate between the metals and nonmetals. Silicon for example appears lustrous, but is not malleable or ductile (it is brittle- a characteristic of some nonmetals). It is a much poorer conductor of heat and electricity than the metals. Metalloids are useful in the semiconductor industry. Trends in Metallic and Nonmetallic Character • Metallic character is strongest for the elements in the leftmost part of the periodic table, and tends to decrease as we move to the right in any period (nonmetallic character increases with increasing ionization values) • Within any group of elements (columns), the metallic character increases from top to bottom (the ionization values generally decrease as we move down a group). This general trend is not necessarily observed with the transition metals ....
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Nonmetals - Properties intermediate between the metals and...

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