Unformatted text preview: refer to the operator acting on NH , for example. Operators and Quantum Mechanics In quantum mechanics, physical observables (e.g., energy, momentum, position, etc.) are represented mathematically by operators. For instance, the operator corresponding to energy is the Hamiltonian operator (31) where is an index over all the particles of the system. We have already encountered the singleparticle Hamiltonian in equation ( 25 ). The average value of an observable A represented by an operator for a quantum molecular state is given by the ``expectation value'' formula (32)...
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 Fall '10
 LauraChoudry
 Chemistry, Hilbert space

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