Phospholipids - usually negative. Cholesterol, illustrated...

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Phospholipids and glycolipids are important structural components of cell membranes. Phospholipids, shown in Figure 16, are modified so that a phosphate group (PO 4 - ) is added to one of the fatty acids. The addition of this group makes a polar "head" and two nonpolar "tails". Waxes are an important structural component for many organisms, such as the cuticle, a waxy layer covering the leaves and stems of many land plants; and protective coverings on skin and fur of animals. Figure 16. Structure of a phospholipid, space-filling model (left) and chain model (right). Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology , 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates and WH Freeman used with permission. Cholesterol and steroids : Most mention of these two types of lipids in the news is
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Unformatted text preview: usually negative. Cholesterol, illustrated in Figure 17, has many biological uses, it occurs in cell membranes, and its forms the sheath of some types of nerve cells. However, excess cholesterol in the blood has been linked to atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries. Recent studies suggest a link between arterial plaque deposits of cholesterol, antibodies to the pneumonia-causing form of Chlamydia , and heart attacks. The plaque increases blood pressure, much the way blockages in plumbing cause burst pipes in old houses. Figure 17. Structure of four steroids. Image from Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology , 4th Edition, by Sinauer Associates and WH Freeman used with permission....
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Phospholipids - usually negative. Cholesterol, illustrated...

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