Proteins - Proteins are very important in biological...

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Proteins are very important in biological systems as control and structural elements. Control functions of proteins are carried out by enzymes and proteinaceous hormones . Enzymes are chemicals that act as organic catalysts (a catalyst is a chemical that promotes but is not changed by a chemical reaction). Click here for an illustrated page about enzymes. Structural proteins function in the cell membrane, muscle tissue, etc. The building block of any protein is the amino acid , which has an amino end (NH 2 ) and a carboxyl end (COOH). The struucture of a generalized aminio acid as well as the specific structures of the 20 biological amino acids are shown in Figure 18 and 19 respectively. The R indicates the variable component (R-group) of each amino acid. Alanine and Valine, for example, are both nonpolar amino acids, but they differ, as do all amino acids, by the composition of their R-groups. All living things (and even viruses) use various combinations of the same twenty amino acids. A very powerful
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Proteins - Proteins are very important in biological...

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