Resonance Structures

# Resonance Structures - These Lewis structures are...

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Resonance Structures The Lewis structure of ozone (O 3 ) 1. Sum of valence electrons = (6*3) = 18 2. Drawing the bond connectivities: 3. Complete the octets of the atoms bonded to the central atom: 4. Place any leftover electrons (18-16 = 2 ) on the central atom: 5. Does the central atom have an octet? NO , it has 6 electrons Add a multiple bond (first try a double bond) to see if the central atom can achieve an octet: 6. Does the central atom have an octet? YES , we are done Ozone would appear to have one single bond, and one double bond However. .. known facts about the structure of ozone The bond lengths between the central oxygen and the other two oxygens are identical :

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We would expect that if one bond was a double bond that it should be shorter than the other (single) bond Since all the atoms are identical (oxygens) which atom is chosen for the double bond?
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Unformatted text preview: These Lewis structures are equivalent except for the placement of the electrons (i.e. the location of the double bond) Equivalent Lewis structures are called resonance structures , or resonance forms The correct way to describe ozone as a Lewis structure would be: This indicates that the ozone molecule is described by an average of the two Lewis structures (i.e. the resonance forms) The important points to remember about resonance forms are: • The molecule is not rapidly oscillating between different discrete forms • There is only one form of the ozone molecule, and the bond lengths between the oxygens are intermediate between characteristic single and double bond lengths between a pair of oxygens • We draw two Lewis structures (in this case) because a single structure is insufficient to describe the real structure...
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Resonance Structures - These Lewis structures are...

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