Sigma Orbital -...

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Sigma Orbital : A bonding molecular orbital with cylindrical symmetry about an  internuclear axis. When atomic orbitals are combined to give molecular orbitals,  the number of molecular  orbitals formed equals the number of atomic orbitals used . So the two 1s orbitals of  H combine to give the  σ orbitals of the H 2  molecule. A molecular orbital (like an atomic  orbital) can contain no more than two electrons (Pauli Exclusion Principle), and are  filled starting with the lowest energy orbital first. In general, the energy difference  between a bonding and anti-bonding orbital pair becomes larger as the overlap of the  atomic orbitals increase. Now let's look at some examples: The H 2 +  molecule has only one valence electron. The H 2  molecule has two valence electrons.
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2 +  molecule has three valence electrons. The He
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Sigma Orbital -...

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