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Sizes of Ions - down a group in the periodic table As the...

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Sizes of Ions Sizes of ions influence: packing of ions in ionic lattices, and therefore, the lattice energy biological recognition - some ions can pass through certain membrane channels, others may be too large The size of an ion is influenced by: nuclear charge number of electrons valence orbitals Cations formed by removing one or more valence electrons vacates the most spatially extended orbitals decreases the total electron-electron repulsion in the outer orbital Cations are therefore smaller than the parent atom Anions formed by addition of one or more valence electrons fills in the most spacially extended orbitals increases electron-electron repulsion in outer orbital Anions are therefore larger than the parent atom For ions of the same charge (e.g. in the same group) the size increases as we go
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Unformatted text preview: down a group in the periodic table As the principle quantum increases the size of both the parent atom and the ion will increase How does the nuclear charge affect ion size? Consider the following collection of ions: ion electrons protons O 2-10 8 F-10 9 Na + 10 11 Mg 2+ 10 12 Al 3+ 10 13 Each ion: • contains the same number of electrons (10; with configuration 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 ) and are thus termed a collection of isoelectronic ions • varies in the nuclear charge The radius of each ion decreases with an increase in nuclear charge: Oxygen and fluorine precede neon and are nonmetals , sodium, magnesium and aluminum come after neon and are metals ....
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