Solids - • Solids and liquids have particles that are...

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Solids The intermolecular forces between neighboring molecules are strong enough to keep them locked in position Solids (like liquids) are not very compressible due to the lack of space between molecules If the molecules in a solid adopt a highly ordered packing arrangement, the structures are said to be crystalline Due to the strong intermolecular forces between neighboring molecules, solids are rigid The state of a substance depends on the balance between the kinetic energy of the individual particles (molecules or atoms) and the intermolecular forces Kinetic energy keeps the molecules apart and moving around, and is a function of the temperature of the substance Intermolecular forces try to draw the particles together Gases have weaker intermolecular forces than liquids Liquids have weaker intermolecular forces than solids
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Unformatted text preview: • Solids and liquids have particles that are fairly close to one another, and are thus called " condensed phases " to distinguish them from gases Changing the state of a substance Temperature • Heating and cooling can change the kinetic energy of the particles in a substance, and so, we can change the physical state of a substance by heating or cooling it. o Cooling a gas may change the state to a liquid o Cooling a liquid may change the state to a solid Pressure • Increasing the pressure on a substance forces the molecules closer together, which increases the strength of intermolecular forces o Increasing the pressure on a gas may change the state to a liquid o Increasing the pressure on a liquid may change the state to a solid...
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Solids - • Solids and liquids have particles that are...

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