The Law of Segregation - continue to segregate We call the...

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The Law of Segregation The phenomenon could be explained if it were assumed that each plant had two copies of the factor influencing the trait. We now call the factor responsible a gene , we say that more than one form of the gene can exist and we call those alternative forms alleles . Mendel explained the results by suggesting that each plant contained two alleles which did not blend together but which remained unchanged. In the next generation the plants passed one or other allele at random into a gamete to be combined with a gamete from the other parent. The non-blending followed by separation into the next generation is the Rule of Segregation . We can distinguish in the above cross two sorts of individual, true breeding individuals with both alleles the same, and individuals in which the two alleles
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Unformatted text preview: continue to segregate. We call the former homozygotes and the latter heterozygotes or carriers . The gene which we are considering is said to be homozygous or heterozygous respectively. We can also distinguish between an individual's outward appearance, its phenotype , and its inward genetic constitution, its genotype . A convenient method of predicting the relative ratios of the progeny in any cross is by means of a Punnett Square an example of which is shown in the above diagram. The gametes from each parent are placed on the margins and at the intersections of the rows and columns are written the resulting offsprings' geneotypes and, if we wish, their phenotypes....
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