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The Temperature

# The Temperature - the amount of gas as well Joseph Louis...

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The Temperature-Volume Relationship: Charles's Law The relationship between gas volume and temperature was discovered in 1787 by Jacques Charles (1746-1823) The volume of a fixed quantity of gas at constant pressure increases linearly with temperature The line could be extrapolated to predict that gasses would have zero volume at a temperature of -273.15°C (however, all gases liquefy or solidify before this low temperature is reached In 1848 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) proposed an absolute temperature scale for which 0°K equals -273.15°C In terms of the Kelvin scale, Charles's Law can be restated as: The volume of a fixed amount of gas maintained at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature Doubling the absolute temperature causes the gas volume to double The value of constant depends on the pressure and amount of gas The Quantity-Volume Relationship: Avogadro's Law The volume of a gas is affected not only by pressure and temperature, but by

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Unformatted text preview: the amount of gas as well. Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1823) Discovered the Law of Combining Volumes : • At a given temperature and pressure, the volumes of gasses that react with one another are in the ratios of small whole numbers • For example, two volumes of hydrogen react with one volume of oxygen to form two volumes of water vapor Amadeo Avogadro interpreted Gay-Lussac's data • Avogadro's hypothesis : Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules • 1 mole of any gas (i.e. 6.02 x 10 23 gas molecules) at 1 atmosphere pressure and 0°C occupies approximately 22.4 liters volume • Avogadro's Law: The volume of a gas maintained at constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas • Doubling the number of moles of gas will cause the volume to double if T and P remain constant...
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