Work - and bowl) has increased. Because energy must be...

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Work By lifting the marble up to start it rolling we put energy into the marble. This type of  energy transfer into our system is called  work . Work is  not  a form of energy, but rather it  is a process in which energy is transferred between the system and its surroundings.    Work  is an  energy transfer process . In physics we learn that work can be calculated given the Forces applied on an object  over a given distance. Work = (Force) X (distance applied) As we just noted, the friction between the marble and the bowl causes the energy that  we initially transferred into the system (marble and bowl) as work ( i.e. , lifting the  marble and starting it rolling) to be eventually transferred ( i.e. , dissipated) to the  internal energy of the marble and the bowl. So, when the system comes to equilibrium  ( i.e. , the marble stops rolling) we will find that the internal energy of the system (marble 
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Unformatted text preview: and bowl) has increased. Because energy must be conserved, the difference in the internal energy of the system (marble and bowl) before we lift the marble and start it rolling, and after it comes to equilibrium ( i.e. , stops rolling), must be equal to the work we performed on the system. U = U final - U initial = w work performed on the system. In this example, the initial and final states of the system look the same to the naked eye, that is, a marble sitting on the bottom of the bowl and not rolling. However, on closer inspection, one would noticed that the marble and bowl of the final state will have a slightly higher temperature due to the increased internal energy. Temperature is a measure of the degree of random motion of the atoms and molecules in a particular substance....
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