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Revolutionary War

Revolutionary War - Revolutionary America Revolutionary 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Revolutionary America Revolutionary 1 The First Continental Congress Opposition to the Intolerable Acts Opposition drove the colonies together. On 5 September 1774, delegates On from 12 of the 13 colonies met in Philadelphia for the First Continental Congress. The Congress quickly fell into The disagreement between advocates of the Suffolk Resolves and the more radical Galloway Plan. more The Congress eventually settled on the Suffolk Resolves which contented itself to a listing of colonial grievances with England. colonial It was no matter as King George III never read the resultant document. document. 2 Early Fighting: the Battles of Early Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill Lexington, On 15 April 1775, British General On Thomas Gage detached a unit of British soldiers to destroy the colonial weapon stores at Concord, MA. weapon The move was not unexpected. When the British troops landed on 18 April, Paul Revere made his famous ride to alert the militias. Upon encountering stout colonial Upon resistance at Concord, the British withdrew to Boston. Along the retreat, the real battle was Along fought as the British soldiers were subjected to nearly constant sniper fire and ambushes. The British lost nearly 20% of the original force and had to be rescued by reinforcements. 3 This was the start of the This Revolutionary War. Revolutionary After Lexington and Concord, the After British occupied Boston. In June, the colonists set up In positions on Bunker Hill, overlooking the city. British General Howe had no choice but to dislodge the Americans. Rather than laying siege to the Rather Americans and starving them out, Howe, to better demonstrate British power, favored a direct frontal assault into the fortified position. Though eventually successful, Though Howe's tactics cost the British 1054 killed or wounded from a force of 2400--40% casualties. 4 Asserting Independence: Blows Asserting Must Decide Must The Second Continental Congress opened The on 10 May 1775 following the fighting at Lexington and Concord. Unlike the First Continental Congress, all Unlike thirteen colonies sent a delegation. The proceedings quickly split between a The more conservative faction led by John Dickinson and a more radical faction led by John Adams and Samuel Adams. The early Congress was marked by two The documents; “The Olive Branch Petition,” supported by Dickinson, sought reconciliation with Great Britain, and the strident “Declaration of Causes and Necessities of Taking Up Arms,” which asserted the American willingness to fight 5 for independence. Parliament refused to consider the "Olive Branch Parliament Petition" because it would not negotiate with a colony in rebellion. The Congress also appointed George Washington The commander of American forces, which was encouraged by his wearing a military uniform everyday, and dispatched Benjamin Franklin to solicit French support in the war with England. the George III responded to the Continental Congress on 23 George August by declaring the American colonies in open rebellion. On 18 November he wrote, "blows must decide whether On they are to be subject to this country or independent." On 31 May 1775, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina On asserted its independence from Britain and established local government in the Charlotte Town Resolves. local 6 Slavery and the Revolution: the Slavery Dunmore Proclamation Dunmore On 14 November 1775, Virginia Royal On Governor Lord Dunmore offered freedom to any slaves or indentured servants in Virginia willing to fight against the colonists. This outraged the colonists. In addition to This fears that Dunmore was encouraging a slave rebellion, colonists believed that, in freeing slaves, Dunmore was interfering with their property. This is demonstrated in the French cartoon This of the British soldiers with the slaves where the man is holding a sign reading "Liberation of the Negroes" and the British soldiers are trampling on documents labeled "The Rights of Men," and "The Rights of Civilized Nations at War." Later, British General Henry Clinton Later, extended this offer to slaves throughout the colonies. Later, British General Clinton would expand the offer to all slaves in the colonies. colonies. 7 In Virginia's Response to Dunmore, In the colony threatens to execute anyone attempting to take advantage of Dunmore's offer. The Memoirs of Boston King tell the The story of a slave able to escape to the British lines. British At the end of the war, the British At evacuated liberated slaves and other loyalists from New York City. As terms of the peace, the Americans As insisted that the British record the identity of any freed slaves so that their former owners could sue for compensation. This became known as "The Book of This Negroes." While it is unclear how many slaves attempted to escape to freedom, the Book of Negroes contains three thousand names, including a slave of George Washington. Washington. 8 Common Sense By the winter of 1775, after the fighting around Boston By and the British rejection of overtures to settle the crisis, many Americans for the first time began to seriously think about independence from Great Britain. In this environment, the impact of the publication In Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” in January 1776 can hardly be overstated. In “Common Sense,” Paine lays out an argument, in the In language of common people, for why the colonies should declare their independence from Britain. 9 The Declaration of Independence In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson, only 33 years old, distilled a century of In enlightenment thought into a few sentences: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed." Even if imperfect in their application, the thought that all men were equal Even and that government existed to serve the people, was revolutionary in a world dominated by monarchy and aristocracy. Jefferson's words have changed the nature of government throughout the Jefferson's world, even the most repressive regimes pay at least lip service to Jefferson. Jefferson. "Remember the Ladies" is a playful, yet serious letter from Abigail to John "Remember Adams asking him to keep women in mind when forming the new government. government. 10 Loyalists and the Revolution For many Americans, the Revolution was a civil For war. The war divided families and communities The between patriot and loyalist. Most famously, this estranged Benjamin Franklin from his son William. William. 11 Times that Try Men's Souls Shortly after the jubilation of Shortly independence had subsided, the winter of 1776-1777 found the Continental Army poorly fed and equipped and Congress unable to appropriate any money to help. In December 1776, Thomas Paine, In who had joined the Continental Army, published nine “Crisis” essays to boast troop morale and rally public support for the war effort. Similarly, George Washington led the Similarly, army on several attacks against unsuspecting British and Hessian forces camped in their winter quarters. It was on one of these attacks that It Washington made his iconic crossing of the Delaware River. of 12 Battle of Saratoga and French Battle Involvement Involvement The Battle of Saratoga represents the turning point in the Revolutionary War. British General John Burgoyne planned a three pronged attack into New York to drive the Americans to battle near Buffalo. drive Burgoyne's plan called for General St. Leger to attack from the west, General Clinton Burgoyne's to attack from the south, and Burgoyne would float an army down the Hudson River and attack from the north. and The plan fell apart from the start. Burgoyne, having never seen the Hudson, did not The realize the challenge of floating an army, and an extensive camp including champagne and wives, down a wild river. When Burgoyne arrived at Saratoga, he expected to find the other prongs of his When attack waiting for him. Instead he found himself alone. St. Leger was defeated at the Battle of Oriskany and Clinton, rather than moving North actually went further south. Burgoyne quickly found himself surrounded by American soldiers and, after two battles, was forced to surrender. Overshadowing the actual battle, the victory proved to the European powers that the Overshadowing Americans could win. Following the Battle of Saratoga, Benjamin Franklin successfully negotiated a treaty in Paris for French entry into the war. successfully 13 The World Turned Upside Down: The Yorktown Yorktown After a grueling campaign through the After southern colonies, General Cornwallis retreated to the coast of Yorktown, Virginia for the winter and the protection of the Royal Navy. Cornwallis was not aware however that the Cornwallis French navy had defeated the British fleet at the Battle of the Capes in September. Therefore, when Cornwallis arrived at Therefore, Yorktown, he found the French navy at his back and the American army before him. The Americans and French laid siege to the The British position and, with no where to turn, Cornwallis surrendered on 20 October 1781. This ended major fighting in the This Revolutionary War. Revolutionary Legend says that, as the British Legend surrendered, their band played the song "The World Turned Upside Down." "The 14 ...
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