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Unformatted text preview: Ms. Susan M. Pojer
Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY
NY On the Eve of the
B rita Am e ric a ns Advantages ? ? Disadvantages ? ? Loyalist
Strongholds Washington’s Headaches
Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor
of a war for independence [the other
third were Loyalists, and the final third
Congress couldn’t tax to raise money
for the Continental
Poor training [until
the arrival of
Baron von Steuben. Exports & Imports: 1768-1783
Exports Military Strategies
Brits had a long
insurgent war you don’t have
to win a battle,
just wear the
Make an alliance
with one of
enemies. The British
colonies in half
between the No.
& the So.
ports to prevent
the flow of
the Loyalists. Phase I: The Northern Campaign
[1775-1776] Bunker Hill (June, 1775)
Bunker The British suffered over 40% casualties. Phase II:
NY & PA
[1777-1778] New York City in Flames
(1776) Washington Crossing the Delaware
Washington Painted by Emanuel Leutze, 1851 Saratoga:
of the War? A modern-day re-enactment Phase III: The Southern Strategy
[1780-1781] Britain’s “Southern Strategy”
Britain thought that there were more
Loyalists in the South.
Southern resources were more
The British win a number of small
victories, but cannot pacify the
countryside [similar to U. S. failures in
Good US General:
Nathanial Greene The Battle of Yorktown (1781)
The Count de
De Grasse Cornwallis’ Surrender at Yorktown:
“The World Turned Upside Down!”
“The World Turned Upside Down!”
Painted by John Trumbull, 1797 North America After the
Treaty of Paris, 1783 Wholesale
1770-1789 Federalist vs. Anti-Federalist
Strongholds at the End of the War Weaknesses of the
Articles of Confederation
A unicameral Congress
[9 of 13 votes to pass a law].
13 out of 13 to amend.
Could not tax or raise armies.
No executive or judicial
branches. State Constitutions
Most had strong governors with veto
Most had bicameral legislatures.
Property required for voting.
Some had universal white male
Most had bills of rights.
Many had a continuation of stateestablished religions while others
disestablished religion. Occupational Composition of
Several State Assemblies
in the 1780s Indian Land Cessions:
1768-1799 Disputed Territorial Claims
Between Spain & the U. S.:
1783-1796 State Claims to Western Lands
State Land Ordinance of 1785
Land Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Northwest One of the major accomplishments of the
Statehood achieved in three stages:
1. Congress appointed 3 judges & a governor to
govern the territory.
2. When population reached 5,000 adult male
landowners elect territorial legislature.
3. When population reached 60,000 elect
delegates to a state constitutional convention. The United States in 1787
The American Exports, To & From
Britain: Annapolis Convention (1786)
12 representatives from 5 states
[NY, NJ, PA, DE, VA]
GOAL address barriers that limited
trade and commerce between the
Not enough states were represented
to make any real progress.
Sent a report to the Congress to call a
meeting of all the states to meet in
Philadelphia to examine areas broader
than just trade and commerce. Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-7
Small farmers angered by crushing
debts and taxes. Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-7
Shays’ Shays’ Rebellion: 1786-7
There could be no
stronger evidence of the
want of energy in our
governments than these
-- George Washington ...
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- Fall '11