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FrenchAndIndianWar - North America in 1750 North 1754 The...

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Unformatted text preview: North America in 1750 North 1754 The First Clash 1754 The The Ohio Valley Ohio British British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne Fort * George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians 1754 Albany Plan of 1754 Union Union Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA A Albany Congress failed Iroquois Albany broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French. 1755 Br. Decides to 1755 Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer. No. Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) (Newfoundland A Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, Attacks & Acadia. A Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces. Only Br. Success expelled France Only from Louisiana. CAJUNS CAJUNS 1756 War Is Formally 1756 Declared! Lord Loudouin Loudouin Marquis Marquis de Montcalm de Native American tribes exploited both sides! British-American Colonial British-American Tensions Tensions Colonials Methods of Fighting: British British • Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or Indian-style bayonet charge. tactics. • Col. militias served Military Col. Organization: under own captains. • Br. officers wanted to Br. take charge of colonials. Military Discipline: • No mil. deference or No protocols observed. • Drills & tough Drills discipline. Finances: • Resistance to rising Resistance taxes. • Colonists should pay Colonists for their own defense. Demeanor: • Casual, non-professionals. • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings. 1757 William Pitt Becomes 1757 Foreign Minister Foreign A He understood colonial concerns. He A He offered them a compromise: He - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. - Lord Loudoun would be removed. Lord RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758. 1758-1761 The Tide Turns 1758-1761 for England for * By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr. By 1763 Treaty of Paris 1763 France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. to Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. Florida England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India. in North America in 1763 North Effects of the War Effects on Britain? on 1. It increased her colonial empire in 1. the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her major American Empire was necessary! American Effects of the War on the Effects American Colonials American 1. It united them against a 1. It common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. The Aftermath: Tensions The Along the Frontier Along 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 Pontiac’s Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected British blankets from Fort Pitt. blankets Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) Pontiac’s BACKLASH! British Proclamation Proclamation Line of 1763. Colonials Paxton Boys (PA) Colonials Rethinking Their Empire Br. Gvt. measures to prevent smuggling: smuggling: A 1761 writs of assistance writs James Otis’ case James Protection of a citizen’s Protection private property must be held in higher regard than a parliamentary statute. He lost parliamentary He law and custom had equal law weight. George Grenville’s George Program, 1763-1765 Program, 1. Sugar Act - 1764 1. 2. Currency Act - 1764 3. Quartering Act - 1765 4. Stamp Act - 1765 Theories of Representation Real Whigs Real Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s What authority over the colonies?? Absolute? OR OR Limited? Limited? Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body?? Stamp Act Crisis Loyal Nine - 1765 1765 Loyal Sons of Liberty – began in NYC: NYC: Samuel Samuel Adams Stamp Act Congress – 1765 1765 * Stamp Act Resolves Stamp Declaratory Act – 1766 1766 Townshend Duties Crisis: Townshend 1767-1770 1767-1770 1767 William Pitt, P. M. & Charles 1767 Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer. A Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops paying col. govt. salaries. A He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade. A Tax these imports paper, paint, lead, glass, tea. A Increase custom officials at American ports established a Board of Customs in Boston. Colonial Response to the Colonial Townshend Duties Townshend 1. John Dickinson 1768 1. * Letters from a Farmer in Letters Pennsylvania. 2. 1768 2nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” “Daughters * spinning bees spinning 3. Riots against customs agents: * John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty. Liberty * 4000 British troops sent to Boston. ...
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