22.4 The American Revolution

22.4 The American Revolution - 22.4 The American 22.4 The...

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Unformatted text preview: 22.4 The American 22.4 The American Revolution Enlightenment ideas help spur the American colonies to shed British rule and create a new nation. Britain and Its American Colonies Britain and Its American Colonies The American Colonies Grow American colonies grow large and populous during the 1600s and 1700s Colonies thrive economically through trade with Europe Britain’s Navigation Act restricts that trade (1651) Other trade laws add restrictions and taxes Colonists identify less and less as British subjects Americans Win Independence Americans Win Independence British­Colonial Tensions Arise Britain and American colonies win the French and Indian War in 1763 Britain taxes colonists to help pay the war debts Colonists argue that British cannot tax them without their consent Americans Win Independence Americans Win Independence Growing Hostility Leads to War Colonists protest tea tax with “Boston Tea Party” in 1773 Colonists meet in Philadelphia to address British policies (1774) British and Americans exchange fire at Lexington and Concord in 1775 Americans Win Independence Americans Win Independence The Influence of the Enlightenment Colonial leaders push for independence, rely on Enlightenment ideas Declaration of Independence—document justifying colonial rebellion Leader Thomas Jefferson writes Declaration, uses ideas of John Locke Americans Win Independence Americans Win Independence Success for the Colonists Despite British military might, colonists have advantages: Motivating cause of freedom French assistance War’s expense for Britain British surrender at Yorktown in 1781; colonists win the war Americans Create a Republic Americans Create a Republic A Weak National Government Articles of Confederation set government plan for new republic Articles create legislature only, no executive or judicial branches Result is weak national government that fails to provide unity and order Americans Create a Republic Americans Create a Republic A New Constitution Leaders call Constitutional Convention in 1787 to revise articles Group instead creates a new government under U.S. Constitution Constitution contains many political ideas of the Enlightenment Enlightenment Ideas and the Enlightenment Ideas and the Constitution Americans Create a Republic Americans Create a Republic The Federal System Constitution creates three branches of government Provides checks and balances—ensures branches share power equally Promotes federal system—power divided between nation and states The Bill of Rights Some fear too much national power, few protections of rights Leaders win support for Constitution by adding a Bill of Rights Ten amendments to Constitution that protect freedoms ...
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